article is based upon historical facts available to anyone
who seeks the truth over trusting the biased teachings of deceived men.
There are no ancient non-Muslim sources on the life of Muhammad, Islam's
prophet and founder. All ever written of him was done so by biased
followers of his teachings. There are two main sources for a history of
Muhammad's life, both of which are Islamic. While the Quran itself
a biographical work, it does provide information as to the life and
mind of the founder of Islam. The two ancient biographies of
Muhammad are the Life History of Muhammad, by Ibn-Ishaq (A.D. 768),
edited by Ibn-Hisham (A.D. 833); and The Expeditions of Muhammad, by Al-Waqidi
(A.D. 822). The evidences from these sources provide a picture of
the life and history of Muhammad.
Muhammad was born at Mecca in 570 in a Quraish tribe that ruled over the city and the surrounding area. His father died on a trading trip at Yathrib just before Muhammad's birth and his mother was left to raise him. Mothers in Quraish tribes traditionally handed their infants over to a nurse from a Bedouin tribe believing that the air of the desert was healthier. Muhammad was given to Halima, who nursed him for 2 years before returning the boy to his mother. Muhammad's mother feared for his health in the air of Mecca and instructed the nurse to take him back to the desert for two more years. When Halima returned a second time she reported that Muhammad had been having
"fits" and she feared that he may be demon possessed. However,
she was once again persuaded to return Muhammad to the desert. After an increasing number of
these "fits" took place, she returned him to his mother at the age of five. Shortly thereafter, while returning from a trip to Yathrib, Muhammad's mother died leaving him to the care of his grandfather.
After his grandfather's death 2 years later, Muhammad's uncle Abu Talib raised him. At age 12, Muhammad began accompanying his uncle on mercantile trips to Damascus and other cities. He spent his youth tending the sheep and goats in the valleys of Mecca . Later in life he would recall his childhood saying, "Even such as I used to gather, feeding the flocks in the valley of Mecca : and truly no prophet hath been raised up but first he hath done the work of a
Muhammad was 25, while working for a wealthy widow merchant of
, he accompanied her trading caravan to Syria.
The widow, Khadija, was impressed with him and on their return
trip offered to marry him. Although she was nearly twice his age,
he agreed to the marriage. She bore him 4 daughters and 2 sons,
the sons dieing in infancy, before her death.
much in the same way that Mormonism began in the United States by a self
proclaimed prophet named Joseph Smith, Muhammad found himself at age 40
seeking a religion other that of the Old or New Testament Bible. He sought
another faith, a "one true religion", and began
meditating in the caves around Mecca in hopes of finding it.
As he meditated and sought
"true religion" in a cave outside Mecca, it is
said that he composed the chapters of the Quran. No scribes accompanied Muhammad on
these trips. The Quran
is written in 7th century Arabic, the same language spoken by the very
literate Bedouins who raised him.
is well documented that Muhammad suffered from bad dreams, trances, and visions,
and it was documented that he was so
troubled by them that at times he sought escape by suicide. It was
during one of these suicide attempts that Islam teaches the angel
Gabriel called out to him, "O Muhammad, thou who art the Prophet of
the lord, I am Gabriel". It is also said that when Muhammad
would have a "revelation" sweat would his brow would sweat profusely
and he would drop
to the ground, at which time supposedly Gabriel would again appear to him and
repeat his instruction that Muhammad was a prophet of Allah sent to
reclaim the lost people of the land. It was these visions and
Muhammad's claimed revelations from the Angel Gabriel that led to the religion
of Islam. When Muhammad first began having the visions, he feared
that the messages were coming from Jinn, or evil spirits. Perhaps
he was correct in this assumption.
Note the next source of deception as it then takes place. Does it sound familiar?
his wife who convinced him that the visions were divinely inspired and that
Muhammad was a true prophet. Even though she did not personally
partake of these dreams and visions, and did not see the Angel Gabriel
herself, she did see the advantage to having a husband revered as a
"messenger of God". Thus he began spreading his
revelations and gathering followers of the "one true religion"
Muhammad's converts grew, he began to speak out against the Meccans and
their idol worship. We can at least give Muhammad credit for his
anti-idolatry stand. It was this conflict with the Meccans that led
to the first blood shed in the name of Islam. As the opposition
grew, Muhammad instructed his followers who could not protect themselves
to go into hiding in
Ethiopia. Not able to protect his remaining followers,
and having no real foundational truth to fall back on, Muhammad
dishonored his God by compromising with the Meccans in incorporating some of their idols into
the evolving religion of Islam. He proclaimed that Al-Lat, Al-Uzza,
and Manat, three Meccan deities, were exalted goddesses and their
intercession was to be sought. This led to the Meccans accepting
Islam. Muhammad later confessed that the compromise was
inspired by Satan.
years after he introduced Islam to the world, Muhammad's wife died. Two months later he married
first a widow, and then a six-year-old girl. He would eventually be married to 15 women. He married
someone new every year following his first wife's death, many of them as
a result of the taking of women as captives during his ongoing war and
plunder in the name of Allah.. Women left alive after a war with
rival tribes would be taken as Muhammad's wives. Other wives were
taken for political gain because of their societal status or relation to
local government officials. Islam taught that men were only
allowed four wives. Muhammad once again made an exception for himself,
however, in his writing of Surat
Prophet! Lo! We have made lawful unto thee thy wives unto whom thou hast
paid their dowries, and those whom thy right hand possesseth of those
whom Allah hath given thee as spoils of war, and a believing woman if
she give herself unto the Prophet and the Prophet desire to ask her in
marriage - a privilege for thee only, not for the rest of believers.
spread rapidly in Yathrib, now Medina, and Muhammad took his followers there to settle and build a great
After settling the area for his followers Muhammad married
a 6 year-old girl.
According to Tabari (also according to Hisham ibn ‘Urwah, Ibn Hunbal and Ibn Sad),
Muhammad's 6 year old bride, Ayesha was betrothed at six years of age and began to cohabit
(have sexual relations) with the Prophet at the age of nine years.
Islamic scholar's teaching of Mohammad's pedophilia:
Sahih Muslim Book 008, Number 3310:
'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) married me when I was six years old, and I was admitted to his house when I was nine years old.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 64
that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death).
Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 65
that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old. Hisham said: I have been informed that 'Aisha remained with the Prophet for nine years (i.e. till his death)." what you know of the Quran (by heart)'
Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 88
The Prophet wrote the (marriage contract) with 'Aisha while she was six years old and consummated his marriage with her while she was nine years old and she remained with him for nine years (i.e. till his death).
Some Muslims claim that it was Aisha's father Abu Bakr who approached Muhammad asking him to marry his daughter. This
can be proven as false through the following:
Sahih Bukhari 7.18
The Prophet asked Abu Bakr for 'Aisha's hand in marriage. Abu Bakr said "But I am your brother." The Prophet said, "You are my brother in Allah's religion and His Book, but she (Aisha) is lawful for me to marry."
Some offer up the quite shallow excuse for the 54 year old man Muhammad's
marriage to a 6 year old girl as being acceptable in the culture and
era of Muhammad's life. No. It was not acceptable. Such relationships
were not only frowned upon, but would bring about severe punishment, by
both authorities and citizens if participated in by the average man.
The Quran in Sura 33:50 grants Muhammad additional wide latitude in his marriages not allowed to the commoner of his era:
"O Prophet, We have made lawful to you those of your wives, whose dowers you have paid, and those women who come into your possession out of the slave-girls granted by Allah, and the daughters of your paternal uncles and aunts, and of your maternal uncles and aunts, who have migrated with you, and the believing woman who gives herself to the Prophet, if the Prophet may desire her. This privilege is for you only, not for the other believers" . . . . (Maududi vol. 4, p. 111, emphasis added).
This lengthy verse says that besides those women whose dower Muhammad paid, he
could marry slave-girls. Maududi references three slave-girls taken during raids,
plus Mary the Copt, a gift from an Egyptian ruler. Muhammad could also marry his first cousins,
(which can cause genetic disorders) and Maududi cites a case in which this happened.
If a believing woman offered herself to Muhammad, and he desired her, then he
could marry her (cousin or not) (Maududi vol. 4, note 88).
This latter self-ordained "permission" by Mohammad is the most suspect.
"Revelations" that sexually or financially benefit a founder or leader of a religious movement
concern for objective outsiders, as it should for those within the
group, unless someone has the imbecilic belief that the human founder has achieved
"sinless perfection" and can do no wrong. Even so, the sexual
sin in itself automatically cancels out that same supposed sinless
Mohammad takes his son's wife as his own = Incest
But the final slap in the face of morality through these "special" marriages occurs when Muhammad also
courts and then marries the wife Zainab of his adopted son Zaid. His son divorced
Zainab after Muhammad's pointed lascivious attention to the girl
prompted her to begin comparing her husband's "worth" with the "Messenger of
God" Muhammad. It is documented that she flaunted
Mohammad's attention before her young husband causing him to seek liberation
of his wife turned tormentor. Early Islamic documents show that while
arriving unannounced Muhammad caught a glimpse of his daughter-in-law in a state of undress, and he desired her.
To be sure that the whole ignominious affair is accepted by his naive
followers, Muhammad comes up with another self serving
"prophecy" in which Allah conveniently "reveals" to him that this marriage between father-in-law and daughter-in-law is legal and moral in Sura 33:36-44.
Following this time of obfuscation concerning his sexual iniquities, a long list of "holy
wars" began. The decimation of the population that took place during
these wars is considered by many, as Godly retribution upon Muhammad and
religious conversion to Islam, still practiced today:
The people who were conquered in these battles
were given three choices: accept Islam, pay tribute, or die by the
sword (see the Repentance Surat, verse 29). As a result of this
method of forced conversion, many Christian churches were turned into
mosques to please the conquering Muslims, while most Christians,
not willing to deny their faith in God and His Son Jesus, were killed.
After the Battle
of Badr, Mohammad proclaimed the ordinance "Know that whatsoever thing ye
plunder, verily one-fifth thereof is for God and for the Prophet
The remaining spoils, after Muhammad received one-fifth, were divided
among the warriors. This began the teachings of Jihad, and
fighting for the cause of Islam now carried with it a margin of financial
profit. Muhammad taught that to die for
the cause of Islam was the highest honor and would lead to eternity in
surrounded by virgins.
What better way to have hoards of brute-minded warriors at your
disposal than to offer them a share in plunder, a pardon of sins, and multiple
(virginal) sex partners with large eyes (?) through out eternity.
al-Nisa 4:74 Let those fight in the way of Allah who
sell the life of this world for the other. Whoso fighteth in the
way of Allah, be he slain or be he victorious, on him We shall bestow a
in the next verse how Mohammad places himself on the level of Allah when he seeks
protection from his enemies. And I'm sure he had many.
al-Ma'idah 5:33 The only reward of those who make war upon Allah
and His messenger and strive after corruption in the land will be that
they will be killed or crucified, or have their hands and feet on
alternate sides cut off, or will be expelled out of the land. Such
will be their degradation in the world, and in the Hereafter theirs will
be an awful doom.
with the Quraiza Jews, over two thousand Jews were slaughtered by
Muhammad and his warriors. In the bloodbath, Zainab, (his adopted
son's ex-wife) lost
her husband, father, and brother. Seeking revenge, Zainab poisoned
Muhammad's dinner. Muhammad spit out the food before it could kill
him, but its effects on him combined with pneumonia in the eleventh
year of the Hijra, led to his death at age 64.
Muhammad died as any man does. There were never any records, writings,
or even a single testimony that Muhammad was resurrected from death or came back to life. No one
ever saw Muhammad again. He is dead and will be raised up on the Day of Judgment
by the true God who has shown Himself to us in the Holy Bible (not
in the Quran).
Muhammad will face judgment before God as every other mortal and lost
man will do. The blood and souls of millions of innocents will be upon his hands.
chosen people, the Jews, and those people redeemed by the Blood of God's
only Son, the Christians, were slaughtered at the hands of Muslims while
under the influence of Muhammad's vile teachings.
tells us that the twelve months following Muhammad's death were spent in
bitter, bloody battles to subdue the Arab tribes who became apostate.
However, Islam continued to grow after Muhammad's death, led by four
Khalifs elected by the closest followers of the prophet. Jihad
also continued in much the same way it had under their prophet. In
634 the Islamic military force advanced on Palestine and Syria, and
defeated the Byzantine armies at Yarmouk River in 636. Forty
thousand more Muslims marched to conquer North Africa, followed by the
surrender of Jerusalem to the plundering Muslims.
one million Armenian Christians were savagely slaughtered by the Turkish
Muslims at the beginning of the twentieth century. According to a
report by Khartoum University professors Ushari Mahmud and Suleyman Ali
Blado, more than one thousand Dinka citizens were massacred in the
Western Sudan town of Diem in 1987. The Baptist Record newspaper
of November 5, 1987, added that dozens of pastors have been killed and
many churches destroyed since Islamic law was imposed in 1983, when
Sudan was officially declared an Islamic republic. The Baptist
World Alliance newsletter of September, 1987, tells of 130 church
buildings and pastor's homes, all of Christian denominations in Kadona
State in Nigeria, being destroyed by Muslim rioters.
this rampant slaughter in the name of religion come from. It is
taught in the Quran as revealed by the prophet Muhammad.
al-Taubah (Repentance) 9:29 Fight against such of those who have
been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and
forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow
not the religion of truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being
Muhammad was a man. He did not heal the sick, give sight to
the blind, nor raise the dead. Muhammad taught blood shed and violence.
He promoted a multitude of sins including theft, lying, murder, adultery, and pedophilia. Anyone that is following his teachings is doing so blindly with out
considering the actions of the man they have chosen to follow. Do not
look for the interpretations of the life and teachings of Muhammad to be
taught to you by others who seek power and authority over you by religious
control. Research who Muhammad was, look at the
documented history of his life, and what he did or did not
accomplish. Ask, no, beg, the true God of Creation to show you the
truth about Muhammad. Seek the truth of God through His Old and
New Testament Word first, and then compare the life of Muhammad to that
of Jesus Christ.
Am I being judgmental in my expressing the negative lifestyle and
teachings of Muhammed?
documented history and making judgment calls on such is not judging
un-righteously, nor is it being self-righteous. An honest and unbiased study of documented
history clearly reveals Islam's ongoing murderous conquering of
Christian, Jewish, and other peoples. E.g. Battle of the Ditch in
where Mohammed slaughtered the Banu Qurayza Jewish tribes of Medina and
The Battle of the Trench massacre of the Jews of Banu Qurayza are
only two examples, among hundreds, of factual Islamic violence and
bloodshed. Islam, as the second fastest growing religion on earth. With
a global population on earth of 6.9 billion, 2 billion of the worlds
Muslim. Islam is a rapidly
growing encroachment on all other religions. The evil you tolerate
today can destroy everything you hold dear in the near future. Here are
just a few of the hundreds of teachings of Islam promoting murder
through war to spread the lies of Islam.
Quran-33:25- “Allah turned back the unbelievers [Meccans and their
allies] in a state of rage, having not won any good, and Allah spared
the believers battle. Allah is, indeed, Strong and Mighty.”
“And He brought those of the People of the Book [Jewish people of Banu
Qurayza] who supported them from their fortresses and cast terror into
their hearts, some of them you slew (beheaded) and some you took
“And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods,
and of a land which ye had not frequented (before). And Allah has power
over all things.” [Merciful Allah asked Prophet Muhammad to confiscate
entire properties of surrendered Jews]
is not fitting for an Apostle that he should have prisoners of war until
He thoroughly subdued the land….” (Allah insisting Prophet to kill
all the prisoners, and should not keep any surrendered prisoners alive
until He (Prophet) occupied entire Arabia.”
is not ye who Slew them; it is God; when thou threw a handful of dust,
it was not Thy act, but God’s…..” (Allah said, the killing of
surrendered soldiers were done by the wish of Allah)
Is Islam a religion of peace and morality?
Mohammad a true prophet of God or were his teachings merely the vain and
self serving imaginations of a man out of control and accountable to no
one, not even to God?
Muhammad seek to bring his followers to know God the Creator, or were
Muhammad's teachings designed to benefit his own personal, social, political,
and sexual ambitions and desires?
the historical record of Muhammad's life show holiness, piety, morality,
and honor of women and his fellow man? Absolutely not!
My prayer for you is that you not be a blind follower.
Your eternal soul hangs in the balance between damnation and
salvation. Choose salvation. Choose the God of the Old and New Testament
Bibles. Choose the ONLY way to God, Jesus.
Barry L. Brumfield
© US 1998-2012
Please see: Compare Islam and Christianity
By written request this article may be
reproduced at no cost.
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^ cf. Sachedina (1998) p. 105 and 106
Esposito (1998), p.12
Esposito (2002b), pp.4–5
F. E. Peters (2003), p.9
"Muhammad". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
Lapidus (2002), pp.23–28
^ F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
Holt (1977a), p.57
Hourani (2003), p.22
Lapidus (2002), p.32
Madelung (1996), p.43
Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
Holt (1977a), p.74
L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
^ Holt (1977a), pp.67–72
^ Waines (2003) p.46
^ Donald Puchala, ‘’Theory and History in International Relations,’’ page 137.
^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, ''Historic cities of the Islamic world'', page 260. BRILL, 2007.
Books.google.com. 2007. ISBN 9789004153882. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
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Lapidus (2002), pp.90,91
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Holt (1977a), pp.80,92,105
Holt (1977b), pp.661–663
Lapidus (2002), p.56
Lewis (1993), p.84
L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
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Lapidus (2002), p.160
Waines (2003) p.126,127
Esposito (2004), pp.44–45
Lapidus (2002), pp.90–94
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"Despite the fact that they did not have a quantified theory of error they were well aware that an increased number of observations qualitatively reduces the uncertainty."
^ Rosanna Gorini (2003), "Al-Haytham the Man of Experience, First Steps in the Science of Vision", International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, Laboratory of Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology, Rome, Italy:
"According to the majority of the historians al-Haytham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. With his book he changed the meaning of the term optics and established experiments as the norm of proof in the field. His investigations are based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences and his experiments were systematic and repeatable."
^ BBC News The ‘first true scientist.’
^ (Gaudiosi 1988)
^ (Hudson 2003, p. 32)
Lapidus (2002), p.103–143
"Abbasid Dynasty". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
^ Lapidus (2002), pp.288–290,310
Lapidus (2002), p.292
"Islamic World". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
^ The Crimean Tatars and their Russian-Captive Slaves. Eizo Matsuki. Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University.
^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. ABC-CLIO. p. 516. ISBN 0313341028.
^ Black Death, Great Moments in Science, ABC Science
Holt (1977a), p.263
Lapidus (2002), p.250
"Istanbul". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
Lapidus (2002), pp.198,234,244,245,254
L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
^ Esposito (2004), pp.104,105
^ "Islamic Art". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
^ Ikram, S. M. 1964. Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press
Lapidus (2002), p.572
Watt (1973), p.18: Wahhabism should not be confused with the early Kharijite sect of
Wahabiyya, which was named after Abd-Allah ibn-Wahb ar-Rasibi, who opposed Ali at
^ Lapidus (2002), pp.358,378–380,624
^ Muslim Minorities in the West: Visible and Invisible By Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Jane I. Smith, pg 271
^ Bulliet, Richard, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch, Lyman Johnson, and David
Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples. 3. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. ISBN 0618427708
^ Lapidus (2002), pp.380,489–493
^ "New Turkey". Weekly.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
^ Lapidus (2002), pp.281–282,380,489–493,556,578,823,835
^ "Organization of the Islamic Conference". BBC News. 2008-09-18. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
^ "24-hours Islamic International TV channel". Peace TV. Retrieved 2010-11-22.
^ Nigosian (2004), pp.41
Esposito (2004), pp.118,119,179
Lapidus (2002), pp.823–830
^ Rippin (2001), p.288
^ Hameed S (2008). "Bracing for Islamic creationism". Science 322 (5908): 1637–8. doi:10.1126/science.1163672. PMID 19074331.
^ For example see Major Themes of the Qur'an by Fazlur Rahman Malik in which he argues against the treatment of the Qur'an as either a piecemeal or an evolutionary progression of ideas. See review by William A. Graham (1983), p.446.
^ For example see The Spirit of Islam by Syed Ameer Ali (1849–1928). It is described by David Samuel Margoliouth (1905) as "probably the best achievement in the way of an apology for Mohammed". See
Margoliouth, preface Mohammed and the Rise of Islam.
^ Westerlund (2003)
^ Elizabeth Omara-Otunnu (2003-11-17). "Ramadan Awareness Event Designed To Debunk Negative Images". Advance, University of Connecticut.
Seibert (1994), pp.88–89
Watt (1974), p.231
^ Nigosian, pp.41
^ Ernst (2004), p.11
^ Berman, Paul (June 4, 2007). "Who's Afraid of Tariq Ramadan?: The Islamist, the journalist, and the defense of liberalism.". The New Republic.
^ Haddad and Ramadan (2002), pp.163
^ a b "Sunnite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p.666
J. Robson. "Hadith". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
D. W. Brown. "Sunna". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
^ From the article on Sunni Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online
Esposito (2003), pp.275,306
"Shariah". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
"Sunnite". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
^ Salafi Islam GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved on 2010-11-09.
Lapidus (2002), p.46
"Imam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
"Shi'ite". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
Ahmed (1999), pp.44–45
Nasr (1994), p.466
Kramer (1987), Syria's Alawis and Shiism pp.237–254
^ Trimingham (1998), p.1
^ "Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths". Uga.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
Esposito (2003), p.302
Malik (2006), p.3
B. S. Turner (1998), p.145
"Afghanistan: A Country Study - Sufism". Library of Congress Country Studies. 1997. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
^ "Ahmadiyya Adherents". Adherents.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
^ It is believed that Salih Ibn Tarif was a Jewish born in the Iberian Peninsula - Kitab
Al-Istibsar, transl. of E. Fagnan, L'Afrique Septentrionale au XII siécle de notre Ere,
Argel, 1900, p. 157.
UGA.edu, Ibadi Islam: An Introduction
J. A. Williams (1994), p.173
"al-Ibāḍiyya". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
^ "Valerie J. Hoffman, Ibadi Islam: An Introduction". Uga.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
^ Miller (2009), p.11
^ Ba-Yunus, Ilyas; Kassim Kone (2006). Muslims in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 172. ISBN 0313328250, 9780313328251page=1. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
^ Whaling, Frank (1987). Religion in today's world: the religious situation of the world from 1945 to the present day. T & T Clark. p. 38. ISBN 0567094529.
^ "Islam: An Overview in Oxford Islamic Studies Online".
Oxfordislamicstudies.com. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
^ Secrets of Islam – U.S. News & World Report. Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University (2005).
^ Miller (2009), pp.15,17
^ "Number of Muslim by country". nationmaster.com. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
^ "CIA – The World Factbook – China". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
^ "China (includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet)". State.gov. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
^ "NW China region eyes global Muslim market". China Daily. 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
^ "Muslim Media Network". Muslim Media Network. 2008-03-24. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
^ Secrets of Islam, U.S. News & World Report. Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University.
Esposito (2004) pp.2,43
"Islamic World". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
"Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2007-01-09.
"Muslims in Europe: Country guide". BBC News (BBC). 2005-12-23. Retrieved 2006-09-28.
"Religion In Britain". National Statistics. Office for National Statistics. 2003-02-13. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
^ The Mosque in America: A National Portrait Council on American-Islamic Relations
(CAIR). April 26, 2001. Retrieved on 2010-08-01.
^ "Islam", The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2005)
^ Elizabeth Allo Isichei, ''A history of African societies to 1870'', page 175. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Books.google.com. 1997. ISBN 9780521455992. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
^ Marilyn Jenkins-Madina, Richard Ettinghauset and Architecture 650–1250, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08869-8, p.3
Adil (2002), p.288
F. E. Peters (2003), p.67
B. van Dalen; R. S. Humphreys, Manuela Marín, et al.. "Tarikh̲". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
^ Ghamidi (2001): Customs and Behavioral Laws
^ Patheos Library – Islam Sacred Time – Patheos.com
^ There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is /z/ or /s/, and whether the a is pronounced
/ɑː/ as in father, /æ/ as in cat, or (when the stress is on the
i) /ə/ as in the a of sofa (Merriam Webster). The most common are /ˈɪzləm,
ɪsˈlɑːm/ (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and
/ˈɪzlɑːm, ˈɪslɑːm/ (American Heritage Dictionary).
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